Thursday, June 25, 2020

Class, Money And Moral Responsibility In Pygmalion - Free Essay Example

Literature viewed through Marxist perspective will often reflect the cultural assumptions and societal delegations of their time period, whilst simultaneously attempting to explain the world with rational and palpable evidence. Pygmalion, a play written by Bernard Shaw, uses the Marxist perspective to present a this or that picture of the world, helping the reader better understand how money and appearance (specifically language) play into public status.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Pygmalion was written to reflect the Victorian ages, to which the author argues, seems that the upper and middle classes often had more success in their skirmishes while the working class poor-almost invariably-lose due to the insatiability of their employers, poverty-stricken living conditions, ignorance, and apathy. Readers can see evidence of the Marxist take, particularly in the character of Henry Higgins. In reference to Eliza, a working class flower girl, he says She is no doubt as clean as she can afford to be; but compared to the ladies she is very dirty. Her features are no worse than theirs; but their condition leaves something to be desired; and she needs the services of a dentist. (1.29) this demonstrates that more than just phonetics and dialect separate her from other women. The argument being that she would fit right in with more affluent society if she simply had enough money to take care of herself. This notion presents the se verity of Elizas social impasse, by reflecting her current social status, in comparison, to other female citizens.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The play doesnt stop there. It continues to explore the elements of societal repression when introducing the character Alfred Doolittle, a thinking man (3.52). He seems to possess impressive intellectual qualifications, coupled with a more problematic moral aptitude. The latter characteristic spells out an unembarrassed pleasure in drinking and entertainment, even at the expense of others. His character invokes the authors aim to bring to light the vanities of charity by suggesting that mans perceived better-off-ness is a consequence not of his character, but of his financial situation. Proven accordingly, when he is thrust into a higher social class, not by updated speech or manner, but simply by money. Referring to Higgins Pickering, he asks What is middle class morality? Just an excuse for never giving me anything. Therefore, I ask you, as two gentlemen, not to play that game on me. Im playing straight with you. I aint pretending to be deserving. Im undeserving; and I mean to go on being undeserving. I like it; and thats the truth. Will you take advantage of a mans nature to do him out of the price of his own daughter what hes brought up and fed and clothed by the sweat of his brow until shes growed big enough to be interesting to you two gentlemen? Is five pounds unreasonable? I put it to you; and I leave it to you. (2.273) He acknowledges the disparities of his social class and uses them to plead with Higgins for money, which in turn, would make him happy. Further identifying the stark connection of money and happiness, under Marxist analysis.   Ã‚   In conclusion, The play, for the most part, did not portray real people discussing a real issue, but rather addresses serious issues of class, money, and moral responsibility. Understanding the Marxist perspective helps the reader better understand the the piece as a whole by exposing the severity of the varying situations-in how they relate to being successful within Victorian society.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Crime and Punishment Essay examples - 1173 Words

Crime and Punishment Crime for what, and punishment for whom? May happens in a park and maybe in a room! Maybe at night or afternoon, here or there or close to the moon. A man who makes a crime may be a tycoon or maybe just a vagrant without a small home. Now the problem is for what, for whom do a little vagrant or a tycoon want to be a prisoner or a dark moon? Making crimes comes as a result of many various things in life. The first and the greatest one is called money as the old expression that says â€Å"Money is the root of all evil†, As many people who are in need of money makes different types of crimes just to gain that money, however it’s coming through a wrong way. The second one and the most popular in Egypt is revenge by†¦show more content†¦They have also made many aggressive things to get what they need and to make what they want. During this age, countries were internally corrupted because they were busy externally as a result of the first and the second world wars. So, during industrial revolution, corruption led to the appearance of plenty types of modern crimes. The 20th century also has many and various types of crimes. Some of them are old and well known for the police inspectors and the others are modern and its first appearance is in this age. However, there crimes exist in this age, It’s not as much as in the past due to the presence of the modern police systems that are able to decrease the average crimes happening in successive years. I guess that the 20th century is full of joy and happiness as a result of decreasing the number of crimes since the governmental care is better than old ages. Non of the humans was born as a criminal. A criminal is the end product of bad conditions that turn a heart of a baby or a child full of happiness into a dark heart full of sadness. A calm person could turn to aggressive one because of those conditions that affect each and every person living on this earth. Some countries try nowadays to change those conditions surrounding especially poor and homeless people. So, conditions are the main responsible for making such a criminal. Justice is a small word, but it has a great meaning as it play an important rule in crime and punishment. A judgeShow MoreRelatedDostoyevskys Crime And Punishment1447 Words   |  6 PagesDostoyevsky s Crime and Punishment relies heavily on Raskolnikov’s motivation for committing the crime. To the casual reader, the motives are straightforward–he wants to find out if he, like Napoleon, is an extraordinary man; wants to rid society of the pawnbroker, the louse; wants simply to lift himself from debt with the money he stole. But these explanations do not strike the heart of the matter: there is a deeper cause. The ultimate reason behind Raskolnikov’s violent murder of the pawnbrokerRead MoreReview Of Crime And Punishment 824 Words   |  4 PagesIn Crime and Punishment, Raskolnikov is depicted as â€Å"crushed by poverty, but the anxieties of his position had of late ceased to weigh upon him† (Dostoyevsky 3). During 1861, the Emancipation Reform had recen tly taken place. The economy was suffering and the need for money became crucial. The protagonist of the novel, Raskolnikov, struggles to earn money, which associates with his behavior. Fyodor Dostoyevsky, the author of the novel, considers Raskolnikov a divided character with different opinionsRead MoreCrime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky1025 Words   |  4 PagesCrime and Punishment, written by Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky; is a philosophical crime fiction novel. The story is very powerful in that it goes beyond the book and into the lives of the audience; making the audience feel some type of relation between themselves and the story. Dostoevsky was brilliant in creating a fictional world where the characters seem to be found within the audience, transitioning from a fictional story to a self-help book. He employes many life lessons in the story, whichRead MoreCrime and Punishment vs. The Stranger1438 Words   |  6 PagesThroughout the novels Crime and Punishment by Fyo dor Dostoevsky and The Stranger by Albert Camus, sun, heat, and light play a significant role in the development and understanding of the novel and the characters in it. Upon the initial reading of The Stranger, the reader may have a general acknowledgment of a relationship between the novel’s protagonist, Mersault, and the sun and heat, either proceeding or following one of the novels significant events. What is harder to understand on the first readRead MoreAnalysis Of The Novel Crime And Punishment 1709 Words   |  7 Pagesthe principles they live by. In Crime and Punishment, Dostoevsky explores contrasting ways of response to adversity. In the novel, there are those who don’t commit crimes while facing the hardships of life, like Sonia, Lizaveta, and Mikolka. Those like Raskolnikov, however, try to change the elements of life that provide challenges by taking drastic measures to modify society and life: by murdering an opportunist pawnbroker in his case. When re ading Crime and Punishment, one can see that the differenceRead MoreUtilitarianism In Dostoevskys Crime And Punishment770 Words   |  4 PagesIn the novel Crime and Punishment the main characters Raskolnikov, Svid, and Sonya embody different philosophies. Throughout the novel you can tell which philosophies Dostoevsky likes and dislikes depending on the character. Sonya represents religion, Raskolnikov represents utilitarianism, and Svid represents a utilitarian hedonist. Throughout this novel these characters help to describe the psychology of a criminal and paint the path between crime and punishment. This novel is told almost entirelyRead More The Struggle in Crime and Punishment Essay1524 Words   |  7 PagesThe Struggle in Crime and Punishment Reading this book makes you ill because from the beginning to the end you watch as psychological forces eat away at the thoughts and actions of their victim causing him to finally confess to the hideous crime he has committed. The story is basically the struggle between Raskolnikovs Napoleon-à ¼bermensch theory and his conscience which make him confess to his crime. Dostoevskys genius is in describing how Raskolnikov struggles in his thoughts and actionsRead More Crime and Punishment Essay examples1327 Words   |  6 PagesCrime and Punishment In his book â€Å"Crime and Punishment†, Dostoevsky explores the path of Raskolnikov who has many problems and obstacles throughout his life. He commits murder and is faced with the long and mentally extremely painful journey of seeking redemption. Raskolnikov believes that by a law of nature men have been â€Å"somewhat arbitrarily† divided into two groups of â€Å"ordinary† and â€Å"extraordinary†. Raskolnikov believes that the duty of the ordinary group is to just exist, in order to formRead MoreCrime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky881 Words   |  3 PagesThe Great Divide In Crime and Punishment, by Fyodor Dostoevsky, Raskolnikov faces a split in his con-science. Despite his attempts to achieve and maintain rational self interest, Raskolnikov finds it impossible to escape his own human nature. Throughout the course of the novel, Raskolnikov becomes divided between modernity and morality, and is continuously pulled back towards hu-man nature. From the start, Raskolnikov portrayed clearly that he was not like other people from his time. RaskolnikovRead MoreDostoevsky s Crime And Punishment1349 Words   |  6 PagesFyodor Dostoevsky wrote â€Å"Crime and Punishment† in 1866, during a time of Russian history where there was a convergence of several different, and oftentimes contradictory, political, philosophical, and economic ideologies. Not only was this a period of many conflicting sentiments, it was also a time of great change, with the Russian government implementing several reforms that changed the course of the country forever. One such reform was the freeing of the serfs under Alexander the II, Tsar of Russia

Monday, May 18, 2020

The Lucid Dreaming And How Can It Be A Method Of...

Introduction Those who experience lucid dreaming in the stage of REM sleep are aware of their dreams and able to control their dreams. Lucid dreaming could be a possible treatment for those with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who suffer from nightmares. During lucid dreaming in a nightmare, the PTSD patients would be able to let go of their fear by recognizing the threats they have in their dreams are not real. PTSD patients can also transform their dreams into something more pleasant or try to wake up from their sleep. A case study proved this idea to be true; the reoccurring dreams the patients would experience were going away after they were introduced into lucid dreaming. Lucid dreaming could be difficult to accomplish, but there are several techniques that can trigger lucid dreaming. For a period of time, researchers have been pondering and searching for ways to help those who suffers from post traumatic stress disorder. This topic is interesting to investigate lucid dreaming and how can it be a method of psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. During this research, online, primary, and book resources were used. Therefore, this essay will deal with the following research question: How can lucid dreaming be used as a method of psychotherapy in those who suffer from post traumatic stress disorder? What is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder? Post traumatic stress disorder is an anxiety disorder that is developed after experiencing a

Monday, May 11, 2020

Leadership Styles Of A Nurse Leader - 1086 Words

Nurse Leadership Styles Rachel R Steanburg Lake Michigan College Abstract Nursing leaders are able to take on many different leadership styles in their management positions. Such types of leadership include Democratic style, Affiliative style, Transformational style and Authoritarian style. Leaders that are able to switch between different leadership styles are able to lead their teams in all different situations and will in turn gain the respect of their team. Nurse leaders need to lead in a way that allows their team to have full confidence in the leader’s ability to keep calm and maintain working conditions that ensure patient safety and compliance. Nurse Leadership Styles Leadership is just one aspect of nursing. Leadership can be something as simple as leading your â€Å"team† of nursing staff through a particular shift all the way to becoming a Director of Nursing in a hospital. One way the success of a leader can be measured is by the influential ability to get employees to reach the same goals of both the leader and the organization. Leaders are able to use many different styles to direct their employees. The situation, end goal and particular leader will help determine which type of leadership is warranted. A leader establishes a vision, autonomy and empowers employees to think critically in every situation. A leader should have many different roles such as clearly communicating expected standards to their team members and encouraging team members to be activelyShow MoreRelatedEvaluation Of A Nurse Leader s Leadership Style And Identify How Their Style Has Helped Them Achieve Success1426 Words   |  6 Pageswith three nurse leaders to ascertain their preferred leadership style and identify how their style has helped them achieve success. Their responses will be compared and contrasted, and will be referenced by appropriate literature to show synthesis with leadership theory. To ensure that consistent questioning took place during these interviews a structured list of questions was used. For the sake of this assignment, each question will form a subheading throughout the paper. The nurse leaders interviewedRead MoreThe Demonstration Of Leadership Style1569 Words   |  7 PagesDemonst ration of leadership style can be either formal or informal. A formal leader is one that is selected and given authority by the hospital management to make decisions and act (Kozier et al, 2010). They are in a position of leadership thus includes the charge nurse, resource nurse, and the manager. They create shared vision, build trusting relationship through communication and initiating transformation and democracy through role directing and being role defined (Ezziane, 2012). The informal leader includesRead MoreTransformational Leadership1196 Words   |  5 Pagesdescribe transformational leadership and its effectiveness in nursing management. Transformational leadership is a newer leadership style that has just recently been implemented amongst managers and peers. Transformational leadership is effective when dealing with conflict. This paper will identify ways that transformational leadership can be used. Transformational Leadership Transformational leadership is described as a person who has the ability to make followers into leaders and promote change (RousselRead MoreLeadership Styles in Professional Nursing1571 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Leadership ability is the most important role of all nurses, and to be a great leader one must know the different styles of leadership. Developing future nurse leaders is a great challenge in today’s nursing profession and powerful leadership skills are needed by all nurses in every aspect of the profession. Leadership quality is the way an individual inspires a group of nurses to achieve greatness in the established goal that has been set in front of them (Sellgren, Ekvall, TornsonRead MoreLeadership Styles Of The Workplace1166 Words   |  5 Pagesmultifaceted. Leadership is the ability to influence others in order to attain goals (Lamberton Minor, 2014). Leaders in the workplace must take responsibility to ensure they do the right things. Leaders typically possess characteristics such as enthusiasm, dominance, emotional stability, self-assurance, and conscientiousness. They have a strong sense of ethics and work hard in order to build integrity in their workplace (U.S. Small Business Administration [SBA], n.d.). Although leaders have some ofRead MoreLeadership Theory And Philosophy Of Leadership Essay1164 Words   |  5 PagesThe belief of leadership is constantly changing, with many theories and frameworks available. Today’s organizations face ever-increasing change, which includes increased patient demands and work needs, which requires a more adaptive flexible leadership that is becoming increasingly important in the 21st century. Leadership theory and philosophy can be divided into several well-known styles. Within this paper, we will discuss the basis of autocratic, democratic, laissez faire, servant, charismaticRead MoreLeadership And The Graduate Nurse Role1144 Words   |  5 Pages Leadership and The Graduate Nurse Role Meha Patel South University â€Æ' Leadership and the Graduate Nursing Role Leadership is a core competency in the field of advanced practice nursing (Hamric, Hanson, Tracy, O’Grady, 2014). Graduate level nurses exercise leadership across four major spheres including nursing profession, clinical practice environments, health policy, and at the system level. This paper provides and analysis of the author’s leadership style and attributes, a descriptionRead MoreNursing Leadership Critique Papers1445 Words   |  6 PagesLeadership Critique Paper The textbook, Concepts for Nursing Practice, defines leadership as, â€Å"an interactive process that provides needed guidance and direction.† (Giddens, J., 2013, p.375). Leaders can be informal, a coworker that everyone looks up to, or formal, a manager that has authority that has been given to them (Giddens, J., 2013, p.375). In the case of the nurse manager I have been shadowing, she is a formal leader. The hospital has appointed her as the Surgical Services Nurse ManagerRead MoreLeadership For An Advanced Practice Nurse997 Words   |  4 PagesIndividual Leadership Assessment Paper Meta Cristiano NUR 604-QM2: Leadership in Advanced Nursing Practice Roles School of Nursing University of Alabama at Birmingham Fall, 2016 Individual Leadership Assessment Leadership is a very important role for an advanced practice nurse. There are many leadership styles a person can utilize when working in a collaborative team environment. It is the responsibility of an advance practice nurse to take on a leadership role and findingRead MoreWhat Makes A Successful Nurse Leader?1624 Words   |  7 Pagessuccessful nurse leader? Many people have different ideas on what makes a leader successful. The professional nurse leader is someone who is looked up to and admired. Most nurses are leaders already without even knowing it. With the proper preparation and guidance, all nurses have the potential to be great leaders and managers. Manager vs. leader The terms manager and leader are often used interchangeably, but in reality they possess very different qualities. It can be said that leaders need to have

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Is The Amendment Number 9 Assisted Suicide - 1719 Words

The specific Amendment and issue I am discussing is Amendment Number 9 Assisted Suicide. Assisted suicide is â€Å"the suicide of a patient suffering from an incurable disease, affected by the taking of lethal drugs provided by a doctor for this purpose† (Oxford Living Dictionaries). This falls under the 9th Amendment; the 9th Amendment â€Å"was part of the Bill of Rights that was added to the Constitution on December 15, 1791. It says that all the rights not listed in the Constitution belong to the people, not the government. The rights of the people are not limited to just the rights listed in the constitution. The text from the Constitution states the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or†¦show more content†¦Two main points of controversy about this are religious beliefs and medical ethics. Many people feel when the law allows someone who is competent and terminally ill the choice of assisted suicide, they are se tting up the choice for people who are not competent to just assume they want to die. For example, a 24-year-old woman in Belgium was experiencing depression and was granted the right to die when experiencing no life-threatening illness. The doctor in this example sates, â€Å"she has been a patient of psychiatric institution since the age of 21 and says she previously tried to kill herself on several occasions. The health professionals in Belgium will give her a lethal injection due to her experiencing suicidal thoughts her whole life† (MSN News). In this case as the professional doctor, you could be unsure what to do. Clearly the 24-year-old woman is facing pain through the depression. If the medical personal does not do what she wishes by forcing the lethal injection then I am sure she will just kill herself. â€Å"Belgium passed a law to legalize euthanasia in 2002, the law states that Belgian doctors can help patients to end their lives if they freely express a wish to die because they are suffering from intractable and unbearable pain† (MSN News). The Medical ethics on Assisted Suicide could be viewed as the doctor helping their patient by avoiding all the pain and suffering vs. trying to make aShow MoreRelatedEuthanasia/Physician Assisted Suicide Should Not be Legalized1343 Words   |  6 Pageshow euthanasia murdered that beloved man, my grandfather. Euthanasia/Physician assisted suicide should not be legalized in the United States. The definition of murder is â€Å"killing intentionally and with premeditation†, how is euthanasia any different? (Miller) Not only is it morally wrong, but logically and ethically as well. Human life is not anyone’s to take and destroying it is devaluing a gift given to us. â€Å"Suicide is the 11th leading cause of death among Americans† and making it lawful wouldRead MoreThe Hippocratic Oath And Euthanasia2151 Words   |  9 Pageswasn’t a topic of discussion in the Middle Age s and if someone committed suicide, the law in Europe was that the body had to be â€Å"dragged down the streets or nailed to a barrel and left to drift downriver† (procon.org). 1Euthanasia was a big topic of discussion during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth centuries but people continued to turn down euthanasia and assisted suicide. 1 In 1828, the first American law made assisted suicide illegal. 1 It wasn’t until the 1930’s that people started to support euthanasiaRead MorePhysician Assisted Suicide; A Viable End-of-life Directive1889 Words   |  8 Pagesconventional symptomatic treatments imposing slow physical and mental deterioration without regard to other feasible options. Information garnered from the experience of Oregon’s legalization of physician assisted suicide illuminates the feasibility of this end-of-life option. Physician assisted suicide is beneficial for terminal patients choosing to circumvent imminent mental and physical indignitie s; therefore this end-of-life option should be legally executable devoid of prosecution. Today’s medicalRead MorePersuasive Essay Topics1228 Words   |  5 Pagesessay topics should be a great resource. I taxed my brain to create this huge list of persuasive essay topics relevant to todays society, but I believe I am happy with the results. I appreciate any and all comments or feedback. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. Should students be allowed to have cell phones in elementary and high schools? Should studentsRead MoreIss 225 John Molloy Final Exam Study Guide Fall Semester 20128139 Words   |  33 PagesEXCHANGE Study Guide, Final Exam, Fall 2012 Unit IV: Courts and Civil Liberties Professor Molloy The final exam will be given in the regular classroom 109 South Kedzie Hall Section 001 will take its final on Monday, Dec. 10 from 7:45-9:45 a.m. Section 002 will take its test on Monday, Dec. 10 from 12:45 - 2:45 p.m. The classroom is not large enough to accommodate two large sections, so you must take the exam when it is scheduled by the university. The final will cover allRead MorePosition Paper-Alcoholism3290 Words   |  14 Pagesoperating machinery or driving a car; and having a significant number or reoccurring alcohol-related problems such as arrests. Even though alcoholism and alcohol abuse differ tremendously, there is still a level of similarity between the two. In fact, levels of alcoholism are classified in four different, but specific areas. Those areas are: • Alpha Alcoholism- is a psychological dependence upon alcohol; prodromal alcoholism (Light 9). • Beta Alcoholism- long-term, daily heavy drinking with ensuingRead MoreAruna Shanbaug Case - Supreme Court of India14522 Words   |  59 Pagestaken a toll in her physical condition but she is gradually recuperating from it. 6. Occasionally, when there are many people in the room she makes vocal sounds indicating distress. She calms down when people move out of her room. She also seems 9 to enjoy the devotional songs and music which is played in her room and it has calming effect on her. 7. In an annual ritual, each and every batch of nursing students is introduced to Ms. Aruna Ramachandra Shanbaug, and is told that amp;quot;She wasRead More Decreasing Violence in America Essay6606 Words   |  27 Pagestelevision shows aimed at children that have violence in them. Think of X-Men, Superman, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, and hundreds of other shows that are centered around violence. Music has also gotten worse when it comes to promoting violence. The number of CDs with the explicit lyrics sticker on it has probably tripled in the past 5 years. The lyrics of songs have gotten much more graphic and are constantly talking about shooting someone, or beating up a cop. The song just isn’t a song without thatRead MoreThe Controversial Debate Of Abortion2790 Words   |  12 Pagesconsolidated the actions and held that Hallford and Roe had substantial standing to sue. The federal court declared that the abortion statutes were overbearing and in direct violation of the women’s rights as stated in the nineteenth and fourteenth amendment. The court’s 7-2 decision created an outline of a legal abortion timeline wherein any legislative interference was banned within the first trimester, but also allowed the state to govern the legality of an abortion within the second trimester, andRead MoreImpact Of Slavery On The Slave Institution3481 Words   |  14 Pagesresistance was the slave market gambits. This is where the slaves deceived their masters by pretending they are weak or stupid. The second kind of slave resistance was Sabotage and suicide. This is where the slaves would sabotage large plantations by breaking farm tools, destroy fields, burn barns and homes, also committed suicide by starvation. For this example, usually when a slave was pregnant, their baby will also be born as a slave. Many of the women did not want this and would try to terminate their

The second danger is for the people of Alabama Free Essays

Alabama faces two problems regarding race relations. One is tiring of the work just as the blonde girl in the old joke, who swims half-way across a lake, declares she is too tired to make it all the way, and then swims back to the side she started on. If the residents of Alabama grow tired of progressing, they too, might someday end up back where they started. We will write a custom essay sample on The second danger is for the people of Alabama or any similar topic only for you Order Now The labor of generations, then, would be wasted. The second danger is for the people of Alabama to believe that enough progress has been made. It is easy to think of one’s own generation as the most advanced in all of time. Yet, a look back at history shows that previous generations felt the same way. An examination of the attitudes and actions of the progressives in the past sheds some light on how far Alabama has come and how far it might still need to go. Many people today portray slave masters as wicked, violent men, who beat their slaves constantly and neglected their needs. This is not a completely accurate picture. Indeed, former Alabama slave Alice Gaston[i] (Gaston, 1941, p. 1) in a 1941 interview with Robert Sonkin the following: All the white folks that know me, they treats me nice. And if I want anything, I’ll ask for it. I was taught in that a way by my old master. Don’t steal, don’t lie, and if you want anything, ask for it. Be honest in what you get. That was what I was raised up with. And I’m that a way today. Another former slave, Isom Moseley also said that he’d worked for, â€Å"might good white folks.† (Moseley, 1941) He remembered the white people having shoes for the children and the elderly.   Similarly, former slave Joe MacDonald recalled that his master had made sure he was educated, so that he would be treated well by other white people, once the master and his wife had â€Å"died and gone to heaven.† (MacDonald, 1940) One slave owner fathered a child by a black woman. Instead of denying his paternity, James T. Rapier’s father acknowledged him and hired a private tutor to educate him in secret, because Alabama law, at the time, did not allow blacks to be educated.[ii]   Rapier elected to the forty-third congress in 1873 as a republican. Yet, in some parts of the state, slaves were treated very badly – particularly in the earliest years. In 1824, slaves in Montgomery outnumbered whites. Around half of Alabama’s heads of household were slave owners. As the number of slaves in Alabama increased, so did per capita wealth. Indeed, in 1930, per capita wealth was $700, which was unmatched by any other part of the country.[1] These factors lead many whites to fear black insurrection. If Alabama blacks rose up against whites, the outnumbered whites might not be able to stop them. Therefore, many feared for their lives. Others feared losing their fortunes. If blacks were freed, once great southerners would have to compete with industrialized northerner families in the American economy. It would be extremely hard for them to compete. [iii] White fear lead to increased oppression. While, for a time, there were free blacks in Alabama, the government chased them out in 1839. An article from The New-Yorker in 1839 declares, â€Å"By a law of the last session of the Alabama legislature, all free persons of color who remain in the state after the 1st of August next are to be enslaved.†[iv] If a similar ruling were made today, the newspaper editors would call for public outrage. In 1839, the note is simply followed by a warning about yellow fever in New Orleans. Clearly, neither the government, nor the media thought of blacks as equals. Yet, while the Alabama legislature tried to rid the state of free blacks, it also ruled, in 1852, that owners must properly clothe their slaves. According to Mary Jenkins Schwartz, however, the law was not enforced and frequently broken.[v] Jenkins states that because owners would not follow the law, slaves who had children had a difficult time keeping their children warm. Indeed, she says, on one Alabama plantation, mothers would cut holes in gunny sacks to clothe their sons and daughters.[vi] Slaves were treated on many plantations as animals. Jenkins reports that many slept on hay. Children were given blankets of inferior quality and expected to share with one another. Children who did not work in the fields on one plantation, were not given food allowances. Therefore their parents would have to catch animals like rabbits and raccoons to feed them. Indeed, says Jenkins, some children would look forward to working in the fields because they would be able to earn food for themselves to stop their hunger.[vii] The fact that plantation owners thought of slaves just as people think of animals is also evinced by a number of documents from Alabama in the 1800’s. For instance, in 1852, a Parks Landing plantation owner offered a reward of fifty dollars for the return of his runaway slave, Stephen. It reads like a lost pet poster. The plantation owner describes his slave as, â€Å"A fine looking negro† who is â€Å"between twenty-five and thirty years of age,† â€Å"about six-feet high,† â€Å"copper-colored,† with a â€Å"high fore-head†. [viii] [1] Jenkins reports that slave owners would use this to tempt slaves into putting their children to work in the fields. Those who did would receive, â€Å"one frock apiece.† One boy, who worked carrying water for workers, earned a shirt, two pairs of pantaloons and shoes. [i] Alice Gaston.   â€Å"Interview with Alice Gaston, Gee’s Bend, Alabama,† Voices of Slavery. Library of Congress.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Washington, D.C. 1941. [ii] Eugene Feldman. â€Å"James T. Rapier, Negro Congressman from Alabama,† The Phylon Quarterly. Vol 19. No. 3    1958. [iii] Clayton W. Williams â€Å"Early Ante-Bellum Montgomery: A Black-Belt Constituency,† The Journal of Southern    History, Vol. 7, No. 4. Nov. 1941. [iv] â€Å"Free Negroes in Alabama,† The New Yorker. Sep. 14, 1839; 7 26. P. 411 [v] Mary Jenkins Scwartz. Born in Bondage: Growing up Enslaved in the Antebellum South. (Harvard: Harvard University Press, 2000). [viii] Levi Parks. â€Å"Poster offering fifty dollars reward for the capture of a runaway slave Stephen,† American Memory. Library of Congress. Washington, D.C. 1852. How to cite The second danger is for the people of Alabama, Essays

Entrepreneurial Finance Course free essay sample

ICampus: download case study + 6 questions (9am to 6pm end) Doyen A015 to A023 : we have the locals: tell him what we want (we have to book the locals) Entrepreneurial finance Different case studies cover the four parts (follow the IPO of Facebook) Project assessment: some toughts on business plan case studies: the knots and cachet tehnologies Introduction All these elements fits together. Business plan has to be written. Not a real predictor for success. People: ask you some questions Deal: as you do for edocs. Introduction Key elements that predict success. * Team : you need good managers Not only a good team but a team that fits with the project * Are you able to defend or create a competitive advantage? Is it special? Are people ready to pay for it? =gt; KEY * You have to know the different steps * How to extract value? You should make money! That’s key. For example: Facebook: out of the market in 5 year? Maybe. We will write a custom essay sample on Entrepreneurial Finance Course or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Not succeeding on smartphones! Are they ready to make money? Extract money from your customers? * Context * Deals should have the rights incentives. You have to find the right partner who ad value not only funding. * .. People To success you need the right person. For example: cachet technologies: lack of management. Opportunity Market: what is the size of the market? The growth rate? Attractiveness of industry: obvious Customers: Selling price is not a production cost + margin. It’s what your customer is ready to pay. When your able to produce this at a lower cost, you make a margin. What is the cost to acquire a new customer? Important. And how to retain a customer? Difficult or not? Competition: Very good market and customers BUT maybe the competition is very hard. Chance of success will be maybe very low. Pay attention. Graphical tools to understand a business model Sales forecast selling price cost =gt; makes you able to calculate the future cash flow. Usely it is like on the graph. Scenario 1 is what you expect but in real life it’s usely scenario two (more time to make money) or scenario three. When you negotiate you first funding, you know you will need a second round (scenario 2). (Give not to much right in the first round to the funding persons) What’s acceptable? Context * Legality? * Today is not the best market to raise money or to go to an IPO * Today? I believe smartphones is an opportunity. Deals Find the right partner! He may understand what you are doing. Everyone has to understand the terms. * Because you need the right incentives. The two parties have to be comfortable. * .. * .. * The right incentive: the profit of the entrepreneur is in line with the success of the company. He has to share the success of the company. Or to lose all his money in case of not success. * .. Case studies The Knot * We asked us these questions. No one had experience in retail services * Barriers for entry were very low so they need to create a brand. * .. * Internet was a very fast growing market. * 1997: a lot of venture capitalist were very active to spend their money on internet. Today? Two sectors. Biotechnology (here in LLN! ) amp; Green energy? (funding comes more from state etc. ) amp; applications on smart phones. * Basic principle: the source of value is cash flow! What is the capacity of this company to generate cash flow! You cannot value a company when you say we will have 1 million customers. Like Facebook 100 billion Where comes the value from? Not from the cash flow they are making today. They make 1 billion cash flow today You want to pay 100 times this They want to raise 10 billion in their IPO (22-28 â‚ ¬ per share) It could make sense if they will made a cash flow of 15 billion/year. Is Facebook capable? If you want to speculate, cash flow does not matter. But if you want to invest, look at the cash flows. (here, in the course, we think investors) Types of securities: the entrepreneur needs to share to company success. It’s like an option. Preferred convertible. Founder: 100 VC: 100 If lt;100 all the money goes to the VC (they protect themselves) * Or you failed: the VC takes all te money and sell your company Or you succeed and the VC helps you with your IPO. There is not really a situation between the two. Cachet Technologies Main question: do we continue the project? Dilemma: Two options: